Opto-Electronic Computer Architecture and Design



Optical interconnect has clear advantages in board-to-board and chip-to-chip interconnection applications. We have investigated both passive and active interconnection methods including hybrid Silicon / Gallium Arsenide optical crossbar switches, optical multi-chip packaging, and integrated Silicon Germanium photo receivers. We have developed coding and optimization techniques for optical memory systems and investigated how they would change the traditional memory hierarchy. We designed and fabricated optoelectronic FPGA systems and super-scalar processors. We developed the Partitioned Optical Passive Star (POPS) Network and optimized routing and reconfiguration algorithms for a variety of optical bus architectures.



  1. D. Chiarulli, S. Levitan, J. Bakos, C. Kuznia, "Active Substrates For Optoelectronic Interconnect," 3385 Session:INV-13: Heterogeneous Systems, IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS 2004), Volume 5, pp. V-592 - V-595, Vancouver, Canada, May 23-26, 2004.
  2. L. Selavo, A. Gupta, D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "Design and Fabrication of SiGe Photo-Detectors in the IBM 5HP Process,"(poster), Proceedings: Topical Meeting on Optics in Computing; European Optical Society (OC 2004), pp. 41-42, Engelberg, Switzerland, April 21-23, 2004.
  3. D.M. Chiarulli, J. Bakos, L. Selavo, S. Levitan, J. Hansson, M. Weisser, "Photonic Packaging for Mixed-Technology Sensor Systems," Proceedings: Topical Meeting on Optics in Computing; European Optical Society (OC 2004), pp. 113-114, Engelberg, Switzerland, April 21-23, 2004.
  4. L. Selavo, D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "Improved Data Density using Dynamic Encoding in a 2-photon Memory," Proceedings: Topical Meeting on Optics in Computing; European Optical Society (OC 2004), pp. 127-128, Engelberg, Switzerland, April 21-23, 2004.
  5. A. Gupta, S.P. Levitan, L. Selavo, D.M. Chiarulli, "High-Speed Optoelectronics Receivers in SiGe," (Design Contest, 2nd Place) 17th International Conference on VLSI Design 2004 (VLSI 2004), pp. 957-960, Mumbai, India, January 5-9, 2004.  Presentation
  6. D. Chiarulli, S. Levitan, J. Bakos, "Optoelectronic Multi-Chip Modules," 10thInternational Conference Mixed Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems (MIXDES 2003), Lodz, Poland, 26-28 June 2003.
  7. J. Bakos, D. Chiarulli, S. Levitan, "Optoelectronic Multi-Chip Module Demonstration System," OSA Optics in Computing (OC 2003), OThD6, pp. 117-119, Washington, DC, June 18-20, 2003.  Presentation
  8. L. Selavo, D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "Smart Optical Transceiver Architecture with Dynamic Channel Encoding," OSA Optics in Computing (OC 2003), OWD2,  pp. 47-49, Washington, DC, June 18-20, 2003.
  9. D. M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "Chip-To-Chip Multipoint Optoelectronic Interconnections," OSA Optics in Computing (OC 2003), OThD4, pp. 111-113, Washington, DC, June 18-20, 2003.
  10. L. Selavo, D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "Adaptive Code Modulation for 2D Optical Memories," at the 2002 IEEE International Symposium on Optical Memory and Optical Data Storage Topical Meeting, pp. 231-233, July 7-11, 2002.
  11. D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, M. Wisser, "Optoelectronic Multi-Chip-Modules Using Fiber Optics Components," Glass and the Photonics Revolution at the Annual Conference of the German Society of Glass Technology, 75, pp. 277-286, Suppl. C1, Bad Soden, Germany, May 28-29, 2002.
  12. J.D. Bakos, D.M. Chiarulli, and S.P. Levitan, "Optoelectronic Multi-Chip-Module Implementation of a 64 Channel Crossbar Switch," International Conference of Optics in Computing (OC2002), pp. 161-163, Taipei, Taiwan, April 8-11, 2002.
  13. L. Selavo, D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "Dynamic Data Encoding for Optical Page Oriented Memories," International Conference of Optics in Computing (OC2002), pp. 108-110, Taipei, Taiwan, April 8-11, 2002.
  14. L. Selavo, D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "Real-Time Adaptive Encoding for 3D Optical Memories," Proceedings of the SPIE The International Society for Optical Engineering, Vol. 4459, pp. 334-351, 2002.
  15. S. P. Levitan, T. P. Kurzweg, J.A. Martínez, D. M. Chiarulli, S. Martínez, B. Courtois,"Diffractive Optical Modeling at the System Level," OSA Annual Conference, Long Beach, CA, 14-18 October 2001. (Presentation)
  16. L. Selavo, D. M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "Dynamic Encoding for Optical Memories," SPIE International Symposium on Optical Science and Technology: Three and Four Dimensional Optical Data Storage, Vol. 4459B-57, pp. 344-351, San Diego, CA, July 29 - Aug 3, 2001.
  17. D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "Optical Interconnects using Fiber Image Guides," Proceedings of the SPIE The International  Society for Optical Engineering, Vol. 4292, pp. 73-76, 2001.
  18. D.M.  Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, M. Robinson, K. Tatah, "Optoelectronic Multi-Chip Modules Based on Imaging Fiber Bundle Structures," IEEE/LEOS 13th Annual Meeting, Volume 2, pp. 423-423, Rio Grand, Puerto Rico, November 13-16, 2000.  Presentation
  19. D. M. Chiarulli, S. P. Levitan, M. Robinson, C. Cryan, "Optoelectronic Multi-Chip Modules Based on Imaging Fiber Bundle Structures," OSA Optics in Computing (OC 2000), Vol. 4089, pp.80-85, Quebec City, Canada, June 18-23, 2000.
  20. D.M. Chiarulli and S.P. Levitan, "Optoelectronic Multi-Chip Modules Based on Imaging Fiber Bundle Structures," 15th International Parallel And Distributed Processing Symposium, Proceedings (IPDPS 2000), Springer-Verlag Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1800, pp. 1132-1132, Cancun, Mexico, 1-5 May 2000.  Presentation
  21. D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, P. Derr, R. Hofmann, B. Greiner, M. Robinson, "Demonstration of Multi-channel Optical Interconnection using Imaging Fiber Bundles Butt Coupled to Optoelectronic Circuits," Applied Optics, Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 698-703, (10 February 2000).
  22. D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, R. Hofmann, "Building a Better Bathtub: Computing at the Optical Memory Interface," SPIE Annual Meeting, Vol. 3802-27, pp. 150-155, Denver, CO, 18-23 July 1999.
  23. D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, Paige Derr, R. Menon, N. Wattanapongsakorn, "Multichannel Optical Interconnections using Imaging Fiber Bundles," OSA Spring Topical Meeting on Optics in Computing (OC'99), OWB3, pp. 112-114, Aspen, CO, April 12-16, 1999.
  24. L. Selavo, S.P. Levitan, D.M. Chiarulli, "An Optically Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array," OSA Spring Topical Meeting on Optics in Computing (OC'99), OThB2, pp. 146-148, Aspen, CO, April 12-16, 1999.
  25. P. Marchand, S. Esener, V. Ozguz, J. Carson, Y. Liu, M. Hibbs-Brenner, and S. Levitan, "3D Optoelectronic Stacked Processors," Diffractive/Holographic Technologies and Spatial Light Modulators, Optoelectronics '99, Photonics West, San José, CA, 23-29 January 1999.
  26. R. Hofmann, M. Pandey, S.P. Levitan, D.M. Chiarulli, "Error Detection and Correction for an Optoelectronic Memory System," SPIE Annual Meeting, Vol. 3468-12, pp. 76-84, San Diego, CA, July 21-24, 1998.  Presentation
  27. R. Hofmann, M. Pandey, S.P. Levitan, D.M. Chiarulli, "Error Detection and Correction for an Optoelectronic Memory System," Special Session on Optics in Communications and Computing, International Conference on Telecommunications (ICT'98), Vol. 3, pp. 241-244, Porto Carras Resort, Chalkidiki, Greece, June 22-25, 1998.  Presentation
  28. M.F. Sakr, S.P. Levitan, C.L. Giles, D.M. Chiarulli, "Reconfigurable Processor Employing Optical Channels," IEEE/OSA International Topical Meeting on Optics in Computing (OC'98), SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 3490, pp. 564-567, Brugge, Belgium, June 17-20, 1998.
  29. D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, R.P. Menon, N. Wattanapongsakorn, "Super Scalar Processor Using Chip Level Optical Interconnections" IEEE/OSA International Topical Meeting on Optics in Computing (OC'98), SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 3490, pp. 119-122, (poster), Brugge, Belgium, June 17-20, 1998.
  30. M.F. Sakr, S.P. Levitan, C.L. Giles, D.M. Chiarulli, "Reconfigurable Processor Architectures Exploiting High Bandwidth Optical I/O," IEEE Symposium on Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines (FPCCM'98), pp. 275-276, (poster), Nappa, CA, Apr. 15-17, 1998.
  31. "Integrating Optical Storage into Real-World Computing Systems," ARO Asilomar Workshop on Rare Earths for 3-D Optical Devices, Asilomar, CA, Apr. 1998. (Presentation)
  32. D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "Making Virtual Memory Real: Integrating an Optical Memory into the Memory Hierarchy," Workshop on Optics and Computer Science, 1997 International Parallel Processing Symposium (IPPS'97), Geneva, Switzerland, Apr. 1-5, 1997.
  33. D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "Design and Implementation of an Optical Page Oriented Virtual Memory for a Personal Computer," OSA Optics in Computing Spring Topical Meeting (OC'97), OThD (poster), Vol. 8, pp. 198-200, Incline Village, NV, Mar. 18-21, 1997.
  34. D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, R.G. Melhem, J.P. Teza, G. Gravenstreter, "Partitioned Optical Passive Star (POPS) Multiprocessor Interconnection Networks with Distributed Control," IEEE Journal on Lightwave Technology, Vol. 14, No. 7, pp. 1601-1612, July 1996.
  35. D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "An Optoelectronic Cache Memory System Architecture," Applied Optics, Vol. 35, No. 14, pp. 2449-2456, 10 May 1996. 
  36. D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "Optoelectronic Cache Memory System Architectures," Workshop on Data Encoding for Page Oriented Optical Memories (DEPOM'96), pp. 23-28, Phoenix, AZ, Mar. 1996. Presentation
  37. "Reconfigurable Optoelectronic Interconnection Networks," University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, Feb. 1996. (Presentation)
  38. "Optoelectronic Interconnection Networks for Parallel Processors," University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia, Feb. 1996. (Presentation)
  39. G. Gravenstreter, R. Melhem, D. Chiarulli, S. Levitan, J. Teza, "The Partitioned Optical Passive Stars (POPS) Topology," 9th IEEE International Parallel Processing Symposium (IPPS'95), pp. 4-10, Santa Barbara, CA, Apr. 25-28, 1995.
  40. "Routing and Reconfiguration in Optoelectronic Multiprocessor Interconnection Networks," AT&T, Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, NJ, Apr. 1995.
  41. J.P. Teza, D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, R.G. Melhem, G. Gravenstreter, "Multiprocessor Architectures Using Partitioned Optical Passive Star Interconnection Networks," Optical Society of America Optical Computing Topical Meeting, OSA Technical Digest: Optical Computing Topical Meeting (OC'95), Vol. 10, OMB-3, pp. 23-25, Salt Lake City, UT, Mar. 12-17, 1995.
  42. D. M. Chiarulli, S. P. Levitan, R. G. Melhem, M. M. Bidnurkar, R. M. Ditmore, G. Gravenstreter, Z. Guo, C. Qiao, M. Sakr, J. Teza, "Optoelectronic Buses for High-Performance Computing," IEEE Proceedings, Vol. 82, No. 11, pp. 1701-1710, Nov. 1994.
  43. C. Qiao, R.G. Melhem, D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "A Time Domain Approach for Avoiding Crosstalk in Optical Blocking Multistage Interconnection Networks," IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 12, No. 10, pp. 1854-1862, Oct. 1994.
  44. "Reconfigurable Optical Interconnection Networks," Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk, Russia, Oct. 1994. (Presentation)
  45. C. Qiao, R.G. Melhem, D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "Dynamic Reconfiguration of Optically Interconnected Networks with Time Division Multiplexing," Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 268-278, Aug. 1994.
  46. D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, R.G. Melhem, J.P. Teza, G. Gravenstreter, "Multiprocessor Interconnection Networks Using Partitioned Optical Passive Star (POPS) Topologies and Distributed Control," in Proceedings of the First International IEEE Workshop on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections (MPPOI'94), pp. 70-80, Cancun, Mexico, Apr. 26-27, 1994, IEEE Computer Society Press.
  47. "Routing and Reconfiguration in Optoelectronic Information Processing Systems," University of Colorado Boulder, Optoelectronic Computing Systems Center, Boulder, CO, Apr. 1994. (Presentation)
  48. D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, R.G. Melhem, C. Qiao, "Locality Based Control Algorithms for Reconfigurable Optical Interconnection Networks," Applied Optics, Vol. 33, No. 8, pp. 1528-1537, 10 Mar. 1994.
  49. "State Sequence Control for Partitioned Optical Passive Star Networks," University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, Dec. 1993. (Presentation)
  50. "Bandwidth as a Virtual Resource in Multiprocessor Interconnection Networks," University of Colorado Boulder, Optoelectronic Computing Systems Center, Boulder, CO, Sept. 1993. (Presentation)
  51. C. Qiao, R.G. Melhem, D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "Simulation of Efficient Routing in TDM Optically Interconnected Multiprocessor Systems," Proceedings of the 1993 25th Annual Summer Computer Simulation Conference (SCSC'93), Society for Computer Simulation, pp. 320-325, Boston, MA, July 19-21, 1993.
  52. "Bandwidth as a Virtual Resource in Optical Interconnection Networks," NEC Corporate Research Center, Princeton, NJ, June 1993. (Presentation)
  53. "Optical Technology for Next Generation Parallel Supercomputers," Pittsburgh Supercomputer Center, Pittsburgh, PA, Apr. 1993. (Presentation)
  54. D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, R.G. Melhem, C. Qiao, "Bandwidth as a Virtual Resource in Reconfigurable Optical Interconnections," Optical Computing Technical Digest (OC'93), Optical Society of America, Vol. 7, OFA4, pp. 299-302, Palm Springs, CA, Mar. 16-19, 1993.
  55. C. Qiao, R. Melhem, D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "A Time Domain Approach for Avoiding Crosstalk in MINs," Optical Computing Technical Digest (OC'93), Optical Society of America, Vol. 7, Postconference, (poster), Palm Springs, CA, Mar. 16-19, 1993.
  56. M.M. Bidnurkar, S.P. Levitan, R. Melhem, D.M. Chiarulli, "Model of Lossless Bus Structure Using Erbium Fiber Amplifiers Pumped near 820nm," Optical Computing Technical Digest (OC'93), Optical Society of America, Vol. 7, OWE16, pp. 192-195, (poster) Palm Springs, CA, Mar. 16-19, 1993.
  57. "Reconfigurable Optical Interconnects," (Organizer and Session Chair), 1993 IEEE Winter VLSI Workshop, Asilomar, CA, Feb. 1993. (Presentation)
  58. "Bandwidth as a Virtual Resource in Multiprocessor Interconnection Networks," University of Pittsburgh, Department of Computer Science, Pittsburgh, PA, Nov. 1992. (Presentation)
  59. "Bandwidth as a Virtual Resource in Multiprocessor Interconnection Networks," University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, Nov. 1992. (Presentation)
  60. C. Qiao, R. Melhem, D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "Efficient Routing in TDM Optically Interconnected Multiprocessor Systems," SPIE Symposium on OE/Aerospace Sensing '92, Conference on Advances in Optical Information Processing V, Orlando, Fl., Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol.1, 704: 428-39, Apr. 21-24, 1992.
  61. "Optical MIMD Architectures," AFOSR Workshop on Reconfigurable Optical Interconnects, Boulder, CO, Mar. 1992. (Presentation)
  62. D.M. Chiarulli, R.M. Ditmore, S.P. Levitan, R.G. Melhem, "An All Optical Addressing Circuit: Experimental Results and Scalability Analysis," IEEE Journal of Lightwave Technology, Vol. 9, No. 12, pp. 1717-1725, Dec. 1991.
  63. "Panel on the Future of Optics in Computing," (Panel Chair), Supercomputing '91, Albuquerque, NM, Nov. 1991. (Presentation)
  64. C. Qiao, R. Melhem, D. Chiarulli, S. Levitan, "Multicasting in Optical Bus Connected Processors Using Coincident Pulse Techniques," International Conference on Parallel Processing (ICPP'91), (poster), St. Charles, IL, Aug. 20-23, 1991, pp. 708-709.
  65. Z. Guo, R.G. Melhem, R.W. Hall, D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "Pipelined Communications in Optically Interconnected Arrays," Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 269-282, July, 1991.
  66. C. Qiao, R.G. Melhem, D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "Optical Multicasting in Linear Arrays," International Journal on Optical Computing, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 31-48, April, 1991.
  67. D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, R.G. Melhem, "Demonstration of an All Optical Addressing Circuit," Optical Society of America Topical Meeting on Optical Computing (OC'91), Technical Digest Vol. 6, TuC3-1, pp. 235-238, Salt Lake City, UT, Mar. 4-6, 1991.
  68. "Optical Interconnection Structures For Multiprocessor Applications," University of Pittsburgh, Department of Electrical Engineering, Pittsburgh, PA, Jan. 1991. (Presentation)
  69. D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, R.G. Melhem, "Self Routing Interconnection Structures Using Coincident Pulse Techniques," SPIE OE/Boston '90, Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 1390, pp. 403-414 (1991), Nov. 5-9, 1990.
  70. Z. Guo, R.G. Melhem, R. Hall, D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "Pipelined Communications on Optical Busses," SPIE OE/Boston '90, Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 1390:415-426 (1991), Nov. 5-9, 1990.
  71. Z. Guo, R. Melhem, R. Hall, D. Chiarulli, S. Levitan, "Array Processors with Pipelined Optical Busses," 3rd IEEE Symposium on the Frontiers of Massively Parallel Computation (Frontiers '90), pp. 333-342, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, Oct. 8-10, 1990.
  72. D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, R.G. Melhem, "Optical Bus Control for Distributed Multiprocessors," Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 45-54, Sept. 1990.
  73. S.P. Levitan, D.M. Chiarulli, R.G. Melhem, "Coincident Pulse Techniques for Multiprocessor Interconnection Structures," Applied Optics, Vol. 29, No. 14, pp. 2024-2033, 10 May, 1990.
  74. "Optical Parallel Processing," Workshop on Optical Neural Networks, Jackson Hole, WY, Feb. 1990. (Presentation)
  75. "Addressing and Control in Optical Interconnection Networks for Hybrid Multiprocessors," University of Colorado Boulder, Optoelectronic Computing Systems Center, Boulder, CO, Feb. 1990. (Presentation)
  76. R.G. Melhem, D.M. Chiarulli, S.P. Levitan, "Space Multiplexing of Waveguides in Optically Interconnected Multiprocessor Systems," The Computer Journal, British Computer Society, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 362-369, Aug. 1989.
  77. D. Chiarulli, R. Melhem, S. Levitan, "Using Coincident Optical Pulses for Parallel Memory Addressing," Computer, Vol. 20, No. 12, pp. 48-57, Dec. 1987.